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founded by S. N. Goenka in the tradition of Sayagyi U Ba Khin

 

 

 

 

 

Psychological Effects of Vipassana on Tihar Jail Inmates

Abstract

The effect of Vipassana on Tihar Jail inmates reported here is based on two studies carried out using standardised psychological tests

The first study was carried out on 120 subjects in January 1994. The dimensions studied were well being, hostility, hope, helplessness, personality, psychopathy and in the case of psychiatric disorders, anxiety and depression.

The second study was carried out in April 1994 on 150 subjects. The sample consisted of two groups: one group of 85 subjects who attended a 10 day Vipassana course and the other group of 65 who did not. The dimensions studied were anomie, attitude to law. personality and psychiatric illness.

Immediately after the course, the subjects were found to be less hostile towards their environment and felt less helpless. The psychiatric patients. constituting about 23% of the total sample, reported good improvement in their anxiety and depressive symptoms. Subjects without any psychological symptoms also reported improvement in the form of enhanced well being and a sense of hope for the future. Their sense of alienation from the mainstream life, though unchanged immediately after the course, was found to be lower after three months.

The follow-up evaluations at three and six month intervals revealed further improvement on many of these dimensions, although the initial improvement in hope and hostility was not sustained.

The change process thus initiated can be strengthened by eliminating the factors working against the impact of Vipassana and by encouraging the regularity of practice.

The overall results of these two studies are positive and encouraging, suggesting adoption of Vipassana as a prison reform measure.

Introduction

Vipassana has been adopted as a prison reform measure in Tihar Jail, the largest prison in the country housing about 9000 prisoners. The main objective of these reforms is to shift the emphasis from a custodial to a correctional approach. This historic development has initiated a more humane approach in dealing with prisoners.

There is now greater emphasis on behavior modification, treatment, rehabilitation and psychological growth of inmates. The ultimate objective is prevention of crime and re-integration into society.

The reform package consists of five main components. These are: Vipassana, health, literacy, cultural and sports activities.

The Technique of Vipassana

Vipassana is an ancient meditation technique rediscovered by Gotama the Buddha, about 2500 years ago. It is currently being taught in India and several other countries under the guidance of Shri S.N. Goenka, the principal teacher of Vipassana. It promotes conscious lifestyle changes, enhances concentration of mind and facilitates deeper psychological introspection to bring about lasting behavioral changes.

Vipassana means "insight" seeing things as they really are. To learn this technique one is required to take a ten day residential course under a qualified teacher. To begin with, one has to take a vow of observing certain rules of moral conduct (sila). These are: abstention from killing any sentient being, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying and taking any intoxicant. This first step itself is likely to bring about positive changes in a prisoner's life style.

The second component of this training is called Anapana, i.e., awareness of respiration. This involves continuous "observation" of the natural flow of incoming and outgoing breath. Gradually the mind gets concentrated on this natural activity and the person can exercise greater control over his mind. It promotes awareness of the present moment, equanimity and tranquillity of mind, since the act of breathing is free from any craving or aversion.

The third step called development of panna or wisdom-involves purification of mind through enhanced awareness. The individual engages himself in choiceless and effortless observation of body sensations and tries to develop an attitude of non-judgement and non-reaction. This practice has a corrective influence on psychic disturbances. Whatever arises in the mind, be it anger, fear, insecurity, passion or sadness, is associated with certain internal body sensations. Observing these sensations in a detached/impersonal manner helps the individual handle these emotions.

People from different backgrounds have undergone residential courses of Vipassana and found it of practical value in everyday life.

There are about 9000 prisoners in Tihar. Over 2000 prisoners have so far learnt Vipassana in the last two years. The success of these courses in Tihar has led to its adoption by other prisons in Baroda, Patna, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, etc.

Vipassana in Prisons

The first prison course of Vipassana was held in Central Jail, Jaipur, in September 1975. Encouraged by the results of this first course, the Government of Rajasthan organised another Vipassana course in January 1977 in the same jail. Subsequently in 1990 a Vipassana course was organised in Sabarmati Jail in Gujarat followed by one more course in Baroda. Several scientific studies have been conducted on these courses reporting positive results.

How Vipassana Came to Tihar

The adoption of Vipassana in the Tihar Jail was the culmination of testing of a wide range of innovative reforms started by Mrs. Kiran Bedi, then I.G.Prisons. Reflecting aloud on the agony she saw everywhere on the prison rounds, she often asked, "How can we find a solution to these prisoners' emotional problems?" One of the junior officers in Tihar who had himself experienced the benefits of Vipassana suggested, "Ma'am, why don't you try Vipassana? This is what has helped me decrease my anger". Coincidentally, Mr. M.L. Mehta,. the then additional Secretary in the Union Home Ministry, also recommended Vipassana to her at about the same time. Mrs. Bedi made inquiries and contacted Mr. Ram Singh, Teacher of Vipassana in Jaipur. He advised her that the first step for introducing Vipassana into Tihar would be that some of the Jail officials take a course.

Mrs. Bedi deputed a few officers and other members of the jail staff to attend a Vipassana course. The change noticed in Jail officials gave Mrs. Bedi and Jail Superintendents the confidence that Vipassana could indeed become an effective method of reform.

The Early Courses in the Prison

The first course at Tihar was held in late November 1993 in Jail No.2, which houses the hard core of the Tihar population-the ten percent who have been convicted of crimes. Ninety-six prisoners and twenty-three Jail staff participated. Vipassana became instantly popular among prisoners and in response to their requests, arrangements were made for six assistant teachers to conduct four courses simultaneously in three Jails on New Year's Day, 1994. A total of about 300 prisoners participated in these courses. News of this was picked up by national and international media. Mrs. Bedi stated publicly that her search for a method which would bring about a transformation of the prisoners ended after finding Vipassana meditation.

After the success of the January Tihar courses, the Ministry of Home Affairs called a meeting of the Inspectors General of Prisons from all over India, and a proposal was adopted to introduce Vipassana as a reform measure in all the prisons in the country.

Mrs. Bedi wanted the entire prison population to experience the benefits of the practice but she realised that at the rate they were going, this would take years. She therefore suggested that a large course for one thousand prisoners be organised.

The Course for One Thousand

On the evening of April 4, 1994, 1003 male prisoners gathered in the huge tent in Jail No. 4 to receive the opening instructions from Shri S.N. Goenka himself. Simultaneously, the first Vipassana course for female prisoners began in Jail No. 1. It was attended by 49 inmates and conducted by two female assistant teachers. Thirteen male assistant teachers, each with a group of 75 to 100, helped to conduct the male course. They were assisted by a handful of trained workers from outside the prison, and about 60 "old students", prisoners serving for the first time. This was the largest Vipassana course conducted in recent history. It paved the way for the opening of the first permanent centre for the practice of Vipassana inside a prison named "Dhamma Tihar".

Research Design

Two scientific studies were carried out to assess the impact of Vipassana on prisoners' mental health. The first study was carried out on 120 subjects in January 1994. The dimensions studied were well being, hostility, hope, helplessness, personality, psychopathy and in the case of psychiatric disorders, anxiety and depression. The second study was carried out in April 1994 on 150 subjects. The sample consisted of two groups; the study group of 85 prisoners, i.e., who had attended the 10-day Vipassana course and the control group of 65 prisoners who had not done so. The dimensions studied were attitude to law, anomie, personality, psychiatric illness, etc. All the subjects were assessed before the meditation course, immediately after the course and after three months with the help of scientifically valid psychological tests and clinical interviews by a team of five, including psychologists, psychiatrists and social workers. In the first study, a six-month follow-up was also carried out.

SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS:

Study I Sample:

A sample of 120 subjects was chosen randomly out of the list of about 300 inmates who volunteered to learn Vipassana in January 1994. About 65% of these inmates were under 30 years of age, 30% were educated up to primary level and 60% up to higher secondary, and about 50% were married. About 80% were undertrials, 35% in custody for murder, an equal number for drug related crimes, and about 10% were booked for theft and dacoity. 30% were staying in prison for less than one year and 60% for durations ranging between one and five years. Only 3% were staying for more than 10 years (see table 1)

Study II Sample:

In April 1994, 1003 inmates learnt the technique of Vipassana out of which a sample of 85 was selected for the study. A control group of 65 was also selected from among those who did not participate in the course.

The sociodemographic profiles of both groups were almost similar, i.e., more than 70% below 30 years of age, about 50% married, more than 80% under trials, and about 65% inmates having stayed in the prison for durations ranging from one to five years. The only difference between the two groups was that there were more illiterate persons in the study group. (See Table II)

The results of these two studies are being described in the form of five separate reports describing the various aspects of prisoners' mental health.

  • Impact on psychiatric illnesses
  • Impact on some positive aspects of mental health, i.e., hopefulness and sense of well being.
  • Impact on hostility and feelings of helplessness
  • Impact on anomie (sense of alienation from mainstream life) and the attitude to law
  • Impact on personality functioning and psychopathy

REPORT I: IMPACT OF VIPASSANA ON PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESSES OF PRISONERS

Study I

The first study was conducted in January 1994 on 120 Tihar Jail prisoners who attended a ten-day residential course. On individual clinical interview, 21 out of these 120 subjects were found to be suffering from psychiatric disorders. There were eight cases of mixed anxiety and depressive disorder, five each of Generalised anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder, two of depressive episode and one case of agoraphobia (see Table III). These positive cases were further administered Hamilton Anxiety and/or Montgomery depressive inventories before and immediately after the course.

There was a significant reduction in anxiety and depression scores after the course (see Table IV). About 70% patients reported good clinical improvement and did not feel the need for treatment. The initial results were found satisfactory justifying further work in this area.

Study II

Encouraged by the results of the preliminary study, another study was carried out in April 1994 on a larger sample taking a control group for the sake of comparison. There were 85 subjects in the experimental group, i.e., those who had volunteered to learn Vipassana and 65 subjects in the control group, i.e., those who did not attend Vipassana and were pursuing other spiritual/religious practices.

All 150 subjects were administered PGIHQ-N1 to screen for psychiatric disorders. The subjects with scores more than the cut-off point were subjected to a detailed clinical interview in order to establish diagnosis. There were 35 subjects in the Vipassana group and nine in the control group who had psychiatric illnesses. The diagnostic break-up is given in Table V.

The psychiatric patients in both the samples were administered Hamilton Anxiety and Becks depression inventories before and after the 10-day Vipassana course to look for any improvement. The pre and post course anxiety and depression scores as well as the report of self-improvement in the Vipassana and control groups are given in Tables VI and VII, respectively.

The reductions in anxiety and depression scores were significant in the post course assessment (p<0.001) in the Vipassana group but not in the control group. On the basis of these results it can be inferred that Vipassana does lead to a significant reduction in anxiety and depression.

The subjects reported significant improvement in physical and psychological health in the Vipassana group which they attributed to the practice of Vipassana.

It seems feasible and would be desirable to use Vipassana for treating psychiatric disorders. Using Vipassana in prison has the following advantages:

  • The magnitude of psychiatric problems is enormous which cannot be satisfactorily managed by the existing psychiatric facilities.
  • Because a large percentage of prisoners are ex-addicts, the drug treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders has a major limitation due to the dependence liability of prescription drugs.
  • It is extremely difficult to provide the conventional non-drug psychiatric treatment in prison set-up as it would require a large number of mental health professionals.
  • Vipassana is readily accepted by the prisoners. It can be administered to a large number of prisoners at one time and is therefore, cost-effective.
  • It is possible to provide continuity of practice after the inmates are discharged from prison through a large network of Vipassana centres in India and abroad.

The results of these studies indicate the extent of psychiatric morbidity in Tihar Jail, even though the samples studied were not representative of the total Tihar population. About one-fourth of Tihar inmates are suffering from psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression, adjustment disorder, other neuroses, psychogenic pain, personality disorder, substance abuse, etc. This estimate does not include psychotic patients as they were excluded from the study.

The extent of psychiatric morbidity in Tihar Jail is similar to the figures reported in several other studies carried out elsewhere. The estimates of mental illness within the inmates are reported to vary between 10 to 75% Roth estimated that 15 to 20% of all prison inmates manifest sufficient psychopathology to warrant medical and psychiatric treatment. In view of the enormity of the problem and the results of his study, Vipassana can be considered as a valuable adjunct to the various psychiatric treatments being offered to prisoners for amelioration of their psychological symptoms.

REPORT II: IMPACT OF VIPASSANA ON SOME POSITIVE ASPECTS OF MENTAL HEALTH

Several hundred reports have demonstrated that Vipassana benefits not only psychiatric patients but also individuals who do not report disease, discomfort or disability. An attempt was made to study the positive mental health dimensions using scientifically valid scales such as PGI well being and hope scales.

PGI well being scale is a 20 item simplified test. It measures aspects such as cheerfulness, relaxation, emotional control, satisfaction in life and freedom from illness, worry, distress, etc. It has been successfully used to measure improvement after receiving psychotherapy.

Hope is an important variable in life as it springs from the depth of one's being, adds quality to life and is related directly to feelings of well-being. It has been observed that in some cases criminal behavior is associated with loss of hope, narrowing of life expectations and life goals. Instillation of hope has been considered to be a curative factor in counseling and psychotherapy for problem behaviors.

PGI well being scale was used on 120 Tihar Jail inmates before and immediately after attending the Vipassana course in January 94 and subsequently after 3 and 6 months. There was an abrupt increase in the well being immediately after the course which was further enhanced at three and six month follow-up.

Hindi adaptation of the 40-item Miller and Power hope scale was used on the same group in a similar fashion. There was a statistically significant improvement in subjects hopefulness but the effects were not sustained on follow-up. (See Table VIII)

This study has not examined the impact of nullifying factors operative in the prison set-up. The majority of inmates are non-meditators living in the same barracks as that of meditators, which in some cases led to reversal to old lifestyles after attending the course. However, subsequently this problem was solved by shifting meditators to a separate barrack so that they could maintain regularity of practice without interference from non-meditators.

Perhaps more frequent courses like this or prolonged courses and regular practice lead to even better results.

The short-term changes observed can be made more stable and lasting by the social and emotional support from Jail authorities, the community at large and the family in particular.

REPORT III: IMPACT OF VIPASSANA ON FEELINGS OF HOSTILITY AND HELPLESSNESS IN PRISONERS

Psychological factors such as frustration, hostility and feelings of helplessness might be the cause or the consequence of criminal behavior and in some cases both. Prison reform measures should lead to some reduction in inmates feelings of hostility, helplessness and other negative emotions. A 15-item scale for assessment of feelings of helplessness was administered to 120 prisoners in January 1994 immediately before and after a 10-day Vipassana course and subsequently after three and six months.

There was a statistically significant reduction in the feelings of helplessness of prisoners immediately after the course. Three months later further reduction in the scores was noticed which was sustained even after six months. This improvement is likely to enable the prisoners to engage themselves in more productive work and have a sense of achievement.

Prisoners' hostility was measured using the Hindi adaptation of 51-item "Hostility and direction of hostility questionnaire", which was administered to 120 prisoners in January 1994 in the same manner, i.e., immediately before and after a 10-day Vipassana course and subsequently after three and six months. This scale consists of the following five subscales:

  • Self criticism
  • Guilt
  • Acting out hostility
  • Criticism of others
  • Delusional projection of hostility

There was a statistically significant drop in the hostility scores on all the five subscales immediately after the course (see Table IX). However, the changes were not sustained at three and six month follow-up suggesting a need for correcting the nullifying factors and reinforcement of regular practice of Vipassana.

The various nullifying factors could be: exposure to a high density of hard core offenders, fears and frustrations of pending court cases and indeterminate sentence, unfavourable attitudes of prison staff, inconvenient daily schedule leading to clash of meditation hours with other important activities etc. To some extent, these have been remedied now.

While interpreting the results, no distinction was made between the inmates who continued the practice of Vipassana after the course and those who did not, which might be responsible for dilution of positive results in some subjects. It would be worthwhile to analyse separately the scores of subjects who have been practicing Vipassana regularly.

REPORT-IV: IMPACT OF VIPASSANA ON SENSE OF ANOMIE AND ATTITUDE TO LAW

Vipassana is being practiced in Tihar Jail as a prison reform measure with the ultimate goal of prevention of crime and reintegration of prisoners in mainstream society following their discharge from Prison. This study has looked at two aspects which may be important in crime prevention.

First is prisoners' attitude to law. An unfavorable attitude may be responsible for criminal behavior and needs to be corrected in the course of reforms. The second related aspect is anomie which has been defined as "breakdown in the cultural norms and goals and the socially structured capacities of members of the group to act in accord with them." In simple words, it is the feeling of alienation from the mainstream life which results from a misfit of individual goals with cultural norms and it might result in criminal activities. Leo Srole's scale of anomie was used on 85 subjects who attended the Vipassana course and the results were compared with a similar set of data on 65 subjects who had not learnt Vipassana. Though no change was noticed immediately after the Vipassana course, the evaluation after three months revealed a statistically significant reduction in the feeling of anomie in the Vipassana group. (See Table X)

The results point towards a definite change which is not visible in the early stages. It gets established after three months and is further enhanced after six months. It indicates that in case of anomie the period of internalisation of new introjects is a little longer. However, it should be possible to expedite this process with the help of positive reinforcement of regular practice. The mean scores of anomie in Tihar Jail prisoners indicate moderate degree of anomie. There was no change in the control group on follow-up. This finding assumes special importance as it suggests relevance of Vipassana in reintegrating prisoners in society. Scores on "attitude to law" scale did not indicate significant changes in both the groups. (See Table XI) Majority of prisoners in both the groups reported favourable attitude to law. It may be a social desirability effect, making it difficult to interpret the results. Further statistical analysis is required to find out if there is a change in the attitude of the few prisoners who reported unfavorable attitude to law.

REPORT V: IMPACT OF VIPASSANA ON PERSONALITY FUNCTIONING AND PSYCHOPATHY

The impact of Vipassana on inmates' personality was studied with the help of PEN inventory (study I), Personality Trait Inventory and Draw a Person test (study II)

The 78-item Indian adaptation of Eysencks PEN inventory was used for assessment of personality. It has four dimensions, i.e., psychoticism, neuroticism, extroversion and lie. Psychoticism shows initial reduction after Vipassana which is not maintained, while neuroticism scores indicate greater instability before the course which is reduced after the course (see Table XII) suggesting small but definite positive change. The results are as expected since the basic personality structure is generally more resistant to short-term influences.

Personality Trait Inventory is a 90-item questionnaire measuring eight personality traits, viz. activity, dominance, paranoid tendency, depressive tendency, emotional instability, introversion, superego, cyclothymia and social desirability. It is based on MMPI, a well known personality questionnaire with well established clinical utility. Reduced activity scores were reported on PTI after Vipassana suggesting that the subjects become less restless and more peaceful (see Table XII).

Test of psychopathy: A 50-item questionnaire, "your personality: a clinical investigation" was used in study I for quick measurement of psychopathic disturbance.

There has been a statistically significant increase in the scores on psychopathy scale immediately after the course and after three months (See Table XIV)

The high values noticed after the course may be spurious, caused due to accentuation of certain traits which reflect spirituality, but in a negative sense may be present in psychopathic individuals. These are:

  • Less faith in rituals, ceremonies and tradition
  • Courage to speak one's mind and fearlessness
  • Less social inhibitions (with strangers)
  • Less guilt/regrets
  • Strange and unusual experiences
  • Desire for solitude
  • Internal locus of control
  • Indifference to majority opinion

At least 15 out of the 50 items in the psychopathy scale could be indicators of spiritual inclinations as well, resulting in spiritual achievements being rated as psychopathic tendencies.

It would also be important to note that the majority of inmates, though criminal, have scored within the average range of psychopathic score. Therefore, baseline score being average, there was scarcely scope for reduction in so called psychopathic traits.

In view of these, it appears that the scale used in this study is inappropriate for assessing change after meditation. It would be worthwhile to study this dimension again using specific scales for assessing criminality.

Study of Prisoners Psyche through a Projective Technique "Draw a Person Test":

Draw a person test is an indirect method of assessing human behaviour. It is relatively free from the deliberate motivational distortions as the subjects do not know in what way their responses would be scored and interpreted.

It is a personality test which is easily administered with the instructions "I would like you to draw a picture of a person; draw the best person you can," followed by questions such as "What are his fears and desires"? The assumption here is that the drawing of a person represents the expression of the self or of the body in the environment, thus representing the self image or body image of the person who draws.

The aim of using this test was to find out whether Vipassana shows definite and positive results, not limited to subjective self-reports alone which may be at times, misleading.

The drawings of 40 prisoners have been interpreted by psychologists. Out of these, 20 had done 10-day Vipassana courses while the remaining had not and were included in the study for comparison. The test was administered to all the subjects immediately before and after a 10-day Vipassana course to see if there were any changes.

The changes observed in the human figure drawings, over a period of time with and without Vipassana are compared in the two groups in Table XV.

There were more positive changes in the study group like more holistic balanced picture of self (more complete and proportionate figures) with reduced dependence (i.e., lesser emphasis on buttons, pockets, midline etc., after Vipassana) and reduced evidence of aggression (less emphasis on eyes. teeth. gums) in them compared to the control group which showed more of random changes both ways (i.e., change of sex. male to female and female to male; larger or smaller second figure or both trends) as well as more of incompleteness in the second figure on second occasion (parts of body missing, e.g., mouth, teeth, face and other details).

A positive trend was also noted in the desires. The positive changes were a little more in the study group while no significant change was seen in the control group. There was a change in desires related to wealth, work, family and love in 70% of the meditators compared to 35% of non-meditators. Meditators reported less desire to eat, drink, take drugs, run away, murder, etc. (see Table XV). The trend in fears reported by prisoners after Vipassana, though visible, was a little less. There were positive changes in inmate's fears of jail staff, being misunderstood, backbiting, poverty, God, ill health and hatred in the Vipassana group while in the control group, the change was small (see Table XV).

The overall gains of Vipassana meditation over the short follow-up period were definite, though small, justifying continuation of such efforts over a longer period in life and if possible accept it as a way of positive living and a prison reform measure.

Conclusions

The statistical analysis of the results has revealed significant improvement in the functioning of inmates following Vipassana on most psychological parameters studied. There is a considerable reduction in the neurotic predisposition and in the feelings of hostility, helplessness and anomie, while the sense of hope and well being are enhanced.

The value system fostered by Vipassana has many therapeutic ingredients relevant to the prison set-up. The value based approach in making the subjects follow the five precepts, i.e., abstention from killing any sentient being, stealing, sexual misconduct, lying and taking any intoxicants, could be one of the best possible approaches to mental hygiene. The practice of "Anapana" for greater control over mind is obviously helpful in handling harmful impulses and wishes. Similarly, understanding every experience as impermanent can serve as a powerful antidote to all the negativities of mind (i.e., anxiety, hostility, depression, fear, etc.). Freedom from these negativities of mind automatically leads to the unfolding of inner potential and growth.

A major limitation of any scientific investigation is that it tests only that which can by objectivised and experimentally measured. The unique characteristics of each individual and the finer human aspects of change process are often ignored. It is therefore essential that the scientific information gathered through inventories and scales be supplemented with individual based, in-depth experiential accounts and the qualitative assessments by the Jail supervisors. The results of most of the systematic studies of the effectiveness of work with prisoners have been highly ambiguous. Ambitious attempts have been made to show that intensive work with prisoners is effective but the results published so far have been inconclusive. While some tend to believe that "nothing works", others feel that intensive work is important but there is neither time nor are people available to do it.

In view of this general pessimistic atmosphere, Vipassana seems to offer some hope to this neglected section of our society.

The overall results of the two studies conducted so far in Tihar Jail are positive and encouraging, suggesting adoption of Vipassana as a reform measure in prison set-up. Inmates should maintain contact with helping professionals even after discharge (as it is crucial for crime prevention). It is possible in case of Vipassana practice as there are many Vipassana centres in our country and outside.

There is a need to study and eliminate the possible nullifying factors working against the impact of Vipassana. The regularity of practice of Vipassana should be encouraged so that the change process initiated immediately after attending a course can be further strengthened and it becomes a part of the personality.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

  • Ideally the researchers should have full control over the physical and social environment of the subjects with no one interfering or doing anything to modify the impact of corrective efforts. Unfortunately, this could not be ensured fully, although the jail authorities did their best to cooperate in this regard.
  • Observation about the regular practice/non-practice of Vipassana could not be regularly made. Prisoners' overall behaviour patterns were also not recorded in the present study.
  • Randomization in sample selection was not fully satisfactory. Not all subjects completed all the forms/ or all the items in those forms. For ethical reasons, it was considered desirable to allow the right of the prisoners to refuse/discontinue the programme at any time if they so desired.
  • Long-term follow-up within the prison could not be carried out due to high rate of release of inmates, which explains decreasing number of subjects on follow-up.

SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORK

  • Greater control over the social environment must be attempted so that non-meditators do not discourage the subjects from maintaining the continuity of practice.
  • Observation about compliance/non-compliance with instructions during the course may be made.
  • Systematic randomization in sample selection should be made to the maximum extent possible without interfering with subjects basic rights to refuse treatment/co-operation for research at any time.
  • Longer observation/follow-up is needed.
  • The impact of Vipassana on prison staff (those who have attended Vipassana courses) should be scientifically studied. In view of the positive results of this study, it is likely that training and orientation of jail staff in Vipassana at all levels would facilitate the process of reform and rehabilitation and would lead to greater impact of Vipassana on prisoners.
  • Better tools may be developed to assess the effect of Vipassana meditation more objectively and reliably.
  • Subjects undergoing courses frequently and practicing regularly should be studied separately to assess the special effects of intensive practice.
  • Providing more congenial atmosphere to inmates in jail would motivate them to opt for self-improvement methods such as Vipassana.

TABLE I: SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS (STUDY I, n=120)

AGE

 

20 and less

7

21-30

62

31-40

30

41 and more

12

Not known

9

EDUCATION

 

Illiterate

4

Primary

37

Higher sec

64

College

12

Not known

3

MARITAL STATUS

 

Married

56

Single

41

Not known

23

LEGAL STATUS

 

Under trial

94

Convicts

23

Not known

3

NATURE OF CRIME

 

None (Self report)

15

Murder

37

Theft/dacoity

11

NDPS act

31

Others

19

Not known

7

DURATION OF PUNISHMENT

 

Not applicable (U.T.)

94

Life time

12

1-5 yrs.

4

6-10 yrs.

7

Not known

3

DURATION OF STAY

 

<1 yr.

40

1-5 yrs.

70

6-10 yrs.

5

>10 yrs.

2

Not known

3

 TABLE II: SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS: (STUDY II)

 

 

VIPASSANA

CONTROL

Chi-Square

df

p

 

 

(n=85)

(n=65)

 

 

 

 

AGE

 

 

 

 

 

 

20-30

58

38

 

 

 

 

31-40

17

15

3.98

3

NS

 

41-50

8

6

 

 

 

 

>50

2

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EDUCATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

Illiterate

31

10

 

 

 

 

XII

49

49

8.33

2

<.05

 

Graduate & P.G.

5

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MARITAL STATUS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Married

49

39

0.08

1

NS

 

Single

36

26

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DURATION OF SENTENCE

 

 

 

 

 

 

Not Applicable (U.T.)

72

56

 

 

 

 

1-5 Yrs.

10

6

0.34

2

NS

 

Life

3

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DURATION OF STAY

 

 

 

 

 

 

<1 yr

19

19

 

 

 

 

1-5 yrs

63

43

1.13

2

NS

 

6-10 yrs

3

3

 

 

 

TABLE III: STUDY I - PREVALENCE OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS (n=120)

DIAGNOSIS

N

%

Mixed anxiety and depression

8

38.1

Generalised anxiety disorder

5

23.8

Adjustment disorder

5

23.8

Depressive episode

2

9.5

Agoraphobia

1

4.8

 

N=21

100.0

TABLE IV: STUDY I, ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION BEFORE AND AFTER VIPASSANA

Montgomery

Depression

Scale

Hamilton

Anxiety Rating

Scale

 

(N=10)

 

 

(N=19)

 

 

Pre

Post

 

Pre

Post

Mean

25.0

10.6

Mean

16.37

4.74

SD

10.2

7.9

SD

6.45

5.41

SIGN TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENCE

-=10

-=19

+=00

+=00

==00

==00

N=10

n=19

p<0.01

p<0.01

*Almost all patients reported significant reduction in their anxiety

and depression scores.

TABLE V: STUDY II - DIAGNOSTIC BREAKUP (ICD-9)

 

VIPASSANA

CONTROL

 

(n=35)*

(n=9)*

DIAGNOSIS

N(%)

N(%)

Adjustment Disorder

25 (40.9)

6 (28.5)

Neurotic Depression

4 (06.5)

1 (04.7)

Anxiety Neurosis

3 (04.9)

0

Psychogenic Pain

2 (03.4)

2 (09.4)

Paranoid Psychosis

1 (01.7)

0

Substance Abuse

4 (06.5)

0

Personality Disorder

4 (06.5)

1 (04.7)

*Some patients received more than one diagnosis, which explains

 the discrepancy in the total number.

TABLE VI: STUDY II - ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SCORES (BEFORE AND AFTER VIPASSANA)

 

 

Pre course

Post course

t

p

 

 

Mean (SD)

Mean (SD)

 

 

 

Vipassana

9.9 (9.6)

7.5 (7.2)

3.9

<.001

Anxiety

 

 

 

 

 

Scores

 

 

 

 

 

(HARS)

Control

16.5 (9.8)

16.3 (9.6)

0.2

N.S.

 

Vipassana

8.5 (8.3)

5.8 (6.4)

4.42

<.001

Depression

 

 

 

 

 

Scores

 

 

 

 

 

(BDI)

Control

10.1 (8.7)

8.2 (7.3)

1.48

N.S.

TABLE VII: STUDY II - SUBJECTIVE IMPROVEMENT

 

YES

NO

CHI SQUARE

p

 

N

N

 

 

Vipassana

46

15

 

 

 

 

 

20.8

<0.001

Control

04

17

 

 

TABLE VIII: STUDY I - HOPE AND WELL BEING SCORES BEFORE AND AFTER VIPASSANA

                                                                                                            Paired ‘t’ test

 

 

I

II

III

IV

I vs II

I vs III

I vs IV

 

 

n=118

n=110

n=86

n=82

n=108

n=84

n=81

Hope

Mean

146.24

151.16

148.88

138.66

t=-3.72

t=-1.32

t=2.49

 

(S.D.)

(21.78)

(21.78)

(18.11)

(18.09)

df=107

df=83

df=80

 

 

 

 

 

 

p<.001

p NS

p<.01

 

 

n=118

n=107

n=82

n=85

n=105

n=85

n=82

Well Being

Mean

11.33

15.21

15.44

16.16

t=-5.87

t=-7.68

t=-9.41

 

 

 

 

 

 

df=104

df=84

df=81

 

(S.D.)

(4.96)

(5.37)

(3.25)

(3.57)

p<.001

p<.001

p<.001

All the subjects did not complete all the scales or all the questions of a scale, hence

the numbers vary a bit from scale to scale. Only the completed subscales were analysed.

 

TABLE IX: STUDY I - HOSTILITY AND HELPLESSNESS SCORES BEFORE AND AFTER VIPASSANA

                                                                                                Paired ‘t’ test

 

 

I

II

III

IV

I vs II

I vs III

I vs IV

 

Hostility

 

 

 

 

 

 

Self Criticism

n=119

n=120

n=86

n=81

n=119

n=85

n=80

 

 

5.15

4.15

4.71

4.80

t=4.48

t=1.97

t=1.93

 

Mean (SD)

(1.61)

(2.14)

(1.77)

(1.83)

df=118

df=84

df=79

 

 

 

 

 

 

p<.001

p<.05

p NS

 

Guilt

n=118

n=120

n=86

n=82

n=118

n=85

n=80

 

 

3.63

2.95

3.33

3.71

t=3.36

t=1.20

t=-.61

 

Mean (SD)

(1.82)

(1.94)

(1.97)

(3.36)

df=117

df=84

df=79

 

 

 

 

 

 

p<.001

p NS

p NS

 

Acting Out

n=120

n=120

n=86

n=82

n=120

n=86

n=82

 

Hostility

3.95

2.90

4.20

3.76

t=5.25

t=-.46

t=.55

 

    Mean (SD)

(2.15)

(2.09)

(2.61)

(2.18)

df=119

df=85

df=79

 

 

 

 

 

 

p<.001

p NS

p NS

 

Projection

n=119

n=120

n=86

n=82

n=119

n=85

n=81

 

of Hostility

4.00

3.45

4.15

3.91

t=2.42

t=-1.32

t=.46

 

Mean (SD)

(1.72)

(2.34)

(2.41)

(2.13)

df=118

df=84

df=79

 

 

 

 

 

 

p<.01

p NS

p NS

 

Criticism

n=120

n=120

n=86

n=82

n=120

n=86

n=82

 

of Others

5.79

4.85

5.58

5.80

t=3.49

t=.12

t=.04

 

      Mean (SD)

(2.35)

(2.65)

(2.56)

(2.68)

df=119

df=85

df=81

 

 

 

 

 

 

p<.001

p NS

p NS

 

Helplessness

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

n=118

n=110

n=86

n=81

n=111

n=86

n=81

 

 

26.53

23.20

21.51

22.68

t=5.00

t=4.51

t=4.11

 

Mean (SD)

(7.16)

(7.65)

(8.84)

(6.21)

df=110

df=85

df=80

 

 

 

 

 

 

p<.001

p<.001

p<.001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

All the subjects did not complete all the scales or all the questions of a scale, hence

the numbers vary a bit from scale to scale. Only the completed subscales were analysed.

  

TABLE X: STUDY II - ANOMIE SCORES: CHANGE OVERTIME AND INTERGROUP COMPARISONS

 

 

 

I

II

III

I vs II

I vs III

II vs III

 

 

n=77

n=81

n=68

n=72

n=59

n=64

 

Vipassana

12.04

12.01

10.21

t=0.00

t=3.28

t=3.73

 

Mean (SD)

(3.19)

(2.57)

(3.75)

df=71

df=58

df=63

 

 

 

 

 

p NS

p<.001

p<.001

 

 

n=59

n=47

n=32

n=40

n=29

n=23

 

Control

12.71

11.70

11.53

t=0.14

t=0.18

t=1.06

 

Mean (SD)

(4.47)

(2.22)

(3.04)

df=39

df=28

df=22

 

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

p NS

‘Z’

Z

1.02

-0.69

1.75

 

 

 

test

df

134

126

98

 

 

 

 

p

NS

NS

<.05

 

 

 

TABLE XI: STUDY II - ATTITUDE TO LAW SCORES

                                                                                                Paired ‘t’ test

 

 

I

II

III

I vs II

I vs III

II vs III

 

 

n=82

n=83

n=69

n=79

n=65

n=66

 

Vipassana

45.52

46.94

43.26

t=-.79

t=1.41

t=1.85

 

Mean (SD)

(9.74)

(10.13)

(10.95)

df=78

df=64

df=65

 

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

p NS

 

 

n=61

n=50

n=33

n=46

n=31

n=26

 

Control

47.49

45.96

45.48

t=1.41

t=1.04

t=-.27

 

Mean (SD)

(8.71)

(8.99)

(9.15)

df=45

df=30

df=25

 

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

p NS

Z’ test

Z

-1.48

0.09

0.11

 

 

 

 

df

141

131

100

 

 

 

 

p

NS

NS

NS

 

 

 

All the subjects did not complete all the scales or all the questions of a scale, hence the numbers vary a bit from subscale to subscale. Only the completed subscales were analysed.

TABLE XII: STUDY I - PEN INVENTORY SCORES

I. PSYCHOTICISM

 

I

II

III

IV

I vs II

I vs III

I vs IV

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

(6 months)

 

 

 

 

n=120

n=107

n=86

n=80

n=107

n=86

n=80

Mean

6.87

5.85

6.45

6.71

t=3.97

t=.51

t=.14

(S.D.)

(3.01)

(3.28)

(3.67)

(3.56)

df=106

df=85

df=79

 

 

 

 

 

p<.01

p NS

p NS

II. EXTRAVERSION

 

I

II

III

IV

I vs II

I vs III

I vs IV

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

(6 months)

 

 

 

 

n=120

n=113

n=86

n=82

n=113

n=86

n=82

Mean

10.12

9.49

10.53

10.12

t=-1.72

t=-1.75

t=-.59

(S.D.)

(3.39)

(3.99)

(3.45)

(3.73)

df=112

df=85

df=81

 

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

p NS

III. NEUROTICISM

 

I

II

III

IV

I vs II

I vs III

I vs IV

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

(6 months)

 

 

 

 

n=118

n=107

n=86

n=86

n=105

n=84

n=84

Mean

9.18

7.31

8.16

7.92

t=1.95

t=1.95

t=2.32

(S.D.)

(3.92)

(3.98)

(4.48)

(4.54)

df=104

df=83

df=83

 

 

 

 

 

p<.001

p NS

p<.05

IV. LIE

 

I

II

III

IV

I vs II

I vs III

I vs IV

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

(6 months)

 

 

 

 

n=120

n=109

n=87

n=80

n=109

n=87

n-80

Mean

9.18

11.06

10.96

10.44

t=-7.26

t=-4.62

t=-2.81

(S.D.)

(3.10)

(2.96)

(3.12)

(2.93)

df=108

df=86

df=79

 

 

 

 

 

p<.001

p<.001

p<.01

All the subjects did not complete all the scales or all the questions of a scale, hence the numbers vary a bit from subscale to subscale. Only the completed subscales were analysed. 

TABLE XIII: STUDY II - PERSONALITY TRAIT INVENTORY SCORES

I. ACTIVITY

 

I

II

III

I vs II

I vs III

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

 

 

Vipassana

n=83

n=85

n=75

n=83

n=71

Mean

15.14

14.16

13.52

t=1.42

t=2.35

SD

(2.76)

(4.74)

(4.60)

df=82

df=70

 

 

 

 

p NS

p<.05

Control

n=64

n=53

n=33

n=50

n=33

Mean

13.72

13.92

14.18

t=-.55

t=-.36

SD

(4.82)

(4.54)

(4.14)

df=49

df=32

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

II. CYCLOTHYMIA

 

I

II

III

I vs II

I vs III

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

 

 

Vipassana

n=83

n=85

n=75

n=83

n=71

Mean

11.92

12.02

11.30

t=-.24

t=.39

SD

(3.54)

(4.64)

(5.18)

df=82

df=70

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

Control

n=64

n=53

n=32

n=50

n=32

Mean

11.04

11.48

11.38

t=.05

t=1.04

SD

(4.64)

(4.48)

(4.36)

df=49

df=31

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

All the subjects did not complete all the scales or all the questions of a scale, hence the numbers vary a bit from subscale to subscale. Only the completed subscales were analysed.

TABLE XIII: STUDY II - PERSONALITY TRAIT INVENTORY SCORES (CONTINUED)

III. SUPER EGO

 

I

II

III

I vs II

I vs III

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

 

 

Vipassana

n=83

n=85

n=75

n=83

n=71

Mean

14.90

14.66

13.74

t=.58

t=2.33

SD

(3.72)

(3.92)

(4.32)

df=82

df=70

 

 

 

 

p NS

p<.05

Control

n=64

n=52

n=33

n=49

n=33

Mean

13.54

14.88

14.12

t=2.27

t=-.45

SD

(4.28)

(3.60)

(3.24)

df=48

df=32

 

 

 

 

p<.05

p NS

IV. DOMINANCE

 

I

II

III

I vs II

I vs III

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

 

 

Vipassana

n=83

n=85

n=75

n=83

n=71

Mean

10.70

10.06

10.10

t=.97

t=.87

SD

(4.38)

(4.60)

(4.28)

df=82

df=70

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

Control

n=64

n=53

n=33

n=50

n=33

Mean

8.88

10.18

10.42

t=-1.2

t=-1.80

SD

(3.96)

(4.08)

(3.12)

df=49

df=32

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

All the subjects did not complete all the scales or all the questions of a scale, hence the numbers vary a bit from subscale to subscale. Only the completed subscales were analysed.

TABLE XIII: STUDY II - PERSONALITY TRAIT INVENTORY SCORES (CONTINUED)

V. PARANOID TENDENCY

 

 

I

II

III

I vs II

I vs III

 

(0)

(10days)

(3 months)

 

 

Vipassana

n=83

n=85

n=75

n=83

N=71

Mean

12.02

11.18

10.54

t=1.07

t=1.56

SD

(5.04)

(5.70)

(5.58)

df=82

df=70

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

Control

n=64

n=52

n=33

n=49

n=33

Mean

10.82

11.26

10.12

t=-.15

t=-.27

SD

(4.60)

(5.34)

(5.74)

df=48

df=32

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

VI. DEPRESSIVE TENDENCY

 

I

II

III

I vs II

I vs III

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

 

 

Vipassana

n=83

n=85

n=75

n=83

n=71

Mean

11.64

10.76

10.48

t=1.43

t=1.67

SD

(4.36)

(5.28)

(4.86)

df=82

df=70

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

Control

n=64

n=52

n=33

n=49

n=33

Mean

10.84

10.74

8.84

t=-.34

t=1.24

SD

(4.80)

(4.78)

(4.98)

df=48

df=32

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

All the subjects did not complete all the scales or all the questions of a scale, hence the numbers vary a bit from subscale to subscale. Only the completed subscales were analysed.

TABLE XIII: STUDY II - PERSONALITY TRAIT INVENTORY SCORES (CONTINUED)

VII. EMOTIONAL INSTABILITY

 

I

II

III

I vs II

I vs III

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

 

 

Vipassana

n=83

n=85

n=75

n=83

n=71

Mean

11.62

11.48

10.98

t=.16

t=.88

SD

(5.36)

(6.22)

(5.52)

df=82

df=70

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

Control

n=64

n=54

n=33

n=51

n=33

Mean

11.44

11.14

9.94

t=-.52

t=1.06

SD

(5.56)

(5.34)

(6.28)

df=50

df=32

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

VIII. INTROVERSION

 

I

II

III

I vs II

I vs III

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

 

 

Vipassana

n=83

n=85

n=75

n=83

n=71

Mean

10.56

10.72

10.74

t=-.23

t=-.52

SD

(5.56)

(4.96)

(4.92)

df=82

df=70

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

Control

n=64

n=53

n=33

n=50

n=33

Mean

9.96

10.26

9.04

t=-.99

t=.21

SD

(4.80)

(4.44)

(5.08)

df=49

df=32

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

All the subjects did not complete all the scales or all the questions of a scale, hence the numbers vary a bit from subscale to subscale. Only the completed subscales were analysed.

TABLE XIII: STUDY II - PERSONALITY TRAIT INVENTORY SCORES (CONTINUED)

IX. SOCIAL DESIRABILITY

 

I

II

III

I vs II

I vs III

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

 

 

Vipassana

n=83

n=85

n=75

n=83

n=71

Mean

11.72

11.96

10.86

t=-.22

t=1.06

SD

(4.54)

(4.96)

(4.40)

df=82

df=70

 

 

 

 

p NS

p NS

Control

n=64

n=53

n=33

n=50

n=33

Mean

10.26

12.30

11.28

t=-2.55

t=-1.64

SD

(4.52)

(4.64)

(4.72)

df=49

df=32

 

 

 

 

p<.01

p NS

TABLE XIV: STUDY I - PSYCHOPATHY SCORES (Raw) 

BEFORE AND AFTER VIPASSANA

 

I

II

III

I vs II

I vs III

II vs III

 

(0)

(10 days)

(3 months)

 

 

 

 

n=99

n=93

n=68

n=91

n=66

n=64

Mean

22.06

23.26

24.09

t=-2.48

t=-3.01

t=-1.88

SD

(3.30)

(3.49)

(3.38)

df=90

df=65

df=63

 

 

 

 

p<.01

p<.01

p NS

All the subjects did not complete all the scales or all the questions of a scale, hence the numbers vary a bit from subscale to subscale. Only the completed subscales were analysed.

TABLE XIII: STUDY II - PERSONALITY TRAIT INVENTORY SCORES (CONTINUED)

TABLE XV: STUDY II CHANGES IN DRAW-A-PERSON TEST (IN PERCENTAGES)

 

(Before vs after)

 

 

Study Group

Control Group

A. CHANGES

(n=20)

(n=20)

1. Little or no change

25

4

2. More complete second figure

40

15

3. More proportionate figure/

-

-

firmer lines on second occasion

15

5

4. More incomplete figure/

10

25

Mouth missing/Details missing

-

-

5. Larger size now

10

40

6. Smaller size now

-

5

7. Change in sex

-

-

Male to female

-

10

Female to female

-

5

8. Lighter Lines

-

25

9. Reduced dependence

Decreased

Increased

(buttons, pockets,

55 to 5

by 5%

Midline emphasis)

-

-

10. Reduced aggression

45 to 5

reduced

(Eyes, Teeth, Gum)

-

by 5%

11. Both female figures

-

10

Overall impression

More of

Random changes

 

Positive

Changes

or

Negative changes

TABLE XV: STUDY II CHANGES IN DRAW-A-PERSON TEST (CONTINUED)

 

 

 

 B. CHANGES IN DESIRES (in percentages)

 

 

 

Study Group

Control Group

1. Little or no change

30

65

2. Love desired more

20

5

3. Family life desired more

15

-

4. Health desired more

10

15

5. Education desired more

10

10

6. Work desired more

10

-

7. Wealth/Money desired more

5

-

8. Rest/Sleep desired more

-

5

9. Also

 

To eat, drink, take drugs,

 

 

murder, run away etc. (5 each)

C. CHANGES IN FEARS (in percentages)

 

 

 

Study Group

Control Group

1. No Change

30

70

2. Poor Health/illness

15

10

3. God

10

-

4. Poor education, illiteracy

10

10

5. Hatred

15

10

6. Being misunderstood

5

-

7. Back biting

5

-

8. Poverty

5

-

9. Jail Staff

5

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thankfully acknowledge the help received from the following:

Shri S. N. Goenka, the main force behind Vipassana movement in India and abroad as well as in Tihar Jail.

Shri Ram Singh and several other Vipassana teachers for inspiration and conducting the courses. Dr. Kiran Bedi and Tihar Jail officials for permission and constant support.

Dr. S. K. Kacker, Director AIIMS, for permission to conduct the research under the aegis of AIIMS, New Delhi.

Shri S. N. Tandon for editorial help.

Vipassana Research Institute, Igatpuri for financial support.

Vipassana Sadhana Sansthan, Delhi for general support.

APPENDIX

ABBREVIATIONS

M:                    Months

N/n:                  Number of Subjects

NDPS Act:            Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act

UT:                   Under trials

df:                     Degree of Freedom

p:                     Level of Significance of difference between the means of two                             groups

NS:                   Difference not significant

SD:                   Standard Deviation

HARS:            Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale

BD1:                 Beck’s Depression Inventory

Chi Square:            Test of Significance (frequency data)

t:                      Test of significance (scores)

I:                      Precourse (Baseline) Assessment

II:                      Post course Assessment: After 10 days

III:                     Post course Assessment: After 3 months

IV:                    Post course Assessment: After 6 months

BASED ON THE CURRENT PROJECT

Papers Published:

  1. Chandiramani, K, Jena R. And Verma, S.K. (1995) Human figure drawing of prisoners and Vipassana. SIS Journal of projective psychology and mental health., 2: 153-158
  2. Kishore, C., Verma, S.K., Agarwal, N., and Yadav, D. (1195) Treating anxiety and depressive disorders through Vipassana in prison set-up: A preliminary report. Indian J. Psychiatry. 37(2) Supplement Pp. 34
  3. Kishore, C., Jena, R. and Hemraj. (1995) Effect of Vipassana on Psychiatric morbidity in prison inmates, Indian J. Psychiatry 37(2) supplement Pp. 35
  4. Papers read at conference/Research reports:
  • Chandiramani, K., Verma, S.K., Dhar, P.L. and Agarwal, N.: Study of the psychological effect of Vipassana on Tihar Jail inmates, 1995. Annual conference of Vipassana International Academy, Igatpuri, Nashik, Maharashtra
  • Publications 2 & 3 were presented at the Annual Conference of Indian Psychiatric Society, Patna, Jan 95.